Saturday, March 21, 2020
>JOB STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE > Negative stress is the kind that wears down a person's >ability to cope with even the most routine tasks. An individual >who is at the end of his or her rope develops a skewed perception >of reality and often begins to misconstrue things. While this >negative stress may have initially started out as positive >pressure, as in the case of a new job, the impact it carries with >it as it mutates into a negative presence can have grave >consequences upon one's physical and emotional being. These >considerations are so prevalent that some corporations have >implemented stress management courses to both address and >intercept the problem in one of the most commonly found places: >the work environment. > There is certainly enough to deal with in the workplace to >have the added pressure of stress. However, escaping >environmental stress on the job is about as easy as not >breathing: it just cannot be done. With that being the case, >people must learn how to harness that negative stress and turn it >into a more beneficial element or get rid of it altogether. >Contemporary employers have come to realize the inherent hazards >of work-related stress and how it directly affects job >performance and the ultimate bottom line. It >only stands to reason that if employees are pushed to the edge >physically, emotionally or mentally, they will not be able to >perform their duties with any reasonable proficiency. Because >job stress and the management of it > has become a focal point in the workforce, employers have >found it necessary to implement stress management plans in order >to once again harmonize the work environment. "HR managers now >recognize undue stress as a real factor in the onset of illness >as well as turnover, job dissatisfaction, >decreased productivity and other workplace ills. And corporations >are beginning not only to notice, but to try to do something >abou... Free Essays on Job Stress Free Essays on Job Stress >JOB STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE > Negative stress is the kind that wears down a person's >ability to cope with even the most routine tasks. An individual >who is at the end of his or her rope develops a skewed perception >of reality and often begins to misconstrue things. While this >negative stress may have initially started out as positive >pressure, as in the case of a new job, the impact it carries with >it as it mutates into a negative presence can have grave >consequences upon one's physical and emotional being. These >considerations are so prevalent that some corporations have >implemented stress management courses to both address and >intercept the problem in one of the most commonly found places: >the work environment. > There is certainly enough to deal with in the workplace to >have the added pressure of stress. However, escaping >environmental stress on the job is about as easy as not >breathing: it just cannot be done. With that being the case, >people must learn how to harness that negative stress and turn it >into a more beneficial element or get rid of it altogether. >Contemporary employers have come to realize the inherent hazards >of work-related stress and how it directly affects job >performance and the ultimate bottom line. It >only stands to reason that if employees are pushed to the edge >physically, emotionally or mentally, they will not be able to >perform their duties with any reasonable proficiency. Because >job stress and the management of it > has become a focal point in the workforce, employers have >found it necessary to implement stress management plans in order >to once again harmonize the work environment. "HR managers now >recognize undue stress as a real factor in the onset of illness >as well as turnover, job dissatisfaction, >decreased productivity and other workplace ills. And corporations >are beginning not only to notice, but to try to do something >abou...
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Arguments for the DREAM Act Supporters of DREAM Act legislation that would give legal status to thousands of the children of illegal immigrants make their case on social, moral and economic grounds. Versions of the DREAM Act have been debated in Washington and state capitals for much of the last decade. All of them have at their core a belief that the country canÃ¢â¬â¢t continue to ignore some 1.7 million young immigrants who came here as children and have no legal national identity. Reasons to Support Dreamers Here are some of the main reasons supporters believe that these undocumented immigrants should get a reprieve from the federal government: These young immigrants are blameless in their current predicament. They were brought here at a young age by their parents and had no say in the matter. It makes no sense and is morally wrong to punish them for the offenses of their parents. The government should treat them as victims, not offenders.The country has already made a substantial investment in many of these young immigrants and it would be senseless to throw that away. Most of them have attended public schools. They have earned high school diplomas in the public system. Many have benefited from public health care and some from other public assistance. The government could get a return from these investments by allowing them to contribute to the U.S. economy and society. Many have completed high school but cannot attend college because of their undocumented status. Studies show DREAM Act immigrants could provide a powerful boost to the U.S. economy.Many of the typical complaints about immigrants donÃ¢â¬â¢t apply to these young people. Most are as American as the native-born citizens around them. They speak English, understand American life and culture, and they are fully assimilated. They tend to be highly motivated and prepared to accept the responsibilities of U.S. citizenship. DREAM Act legislation could transform this lost generation of young people into U.S. taxpayers. Even some conservative Republicans such as Texas Gov. Rick Perry support the DREAM Act because it would make these immigrants taxpayers who contribute to the economy, instead of people forced to live unproductive lives in the shadows of a nation that wonÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge them. Ã¢â¬Å"Are we going to create a class of tax wasters or are we going to create taxpayers?Ã¢â¬ Perry said. Ã¢â¬Å"Texas chose the latter. Every state has the freedom to make that decision.Ã¢â¬ Bringing these young immigrants out of the shadows would enhance national security. As long as the government considers them here illegally, they will not come forward. National security is strengthened when everyone in the country lives openly and contributes to society. To take advantage of the DREAM Act, young immigrants would be required to pass background checks and give their addresses and contact information to t he government.Giving legal status to these young immigrants through the DREAM Act would not cost the government. In fact, the fees immigration officials could charge applicants could more than cover the administrative costs of running the program. President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s deferred action, DREAM Act alternative program already uses fees to cover its costs. Many of the eligible young immigrants are willing to give public service to the country, either through the U.S. military or non-profit enterprises. The DREAM Act could be the catalyst for a wave of service and social activism across the country. Young immigrants are eager to contribute their time and energy to a nation that embraces them.The DREAM Act is in keeping with the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ heritage as a nation that treats immigrants fairly and makes special efforts to reach out to young people. TheAmerican tradition as a sanctuary for exiles dictates that we allow these innocent immigrants a chance to move on with their lives and not cast them as refugees without a homeland.Studies show that President Obamas deferred action program for young immigrants, which he implemented as a substitute for the DREAM Act, has helped lift the U.S. economy. Also, it has saved U.S. taxpayers millions that would have been spent to deport this group of unauthorized immigrants. A study by the Cen ter for American Progress found that the DREAM Act would create economic benefits for the country.
Monday, February 17, 2020
The U.N Humanitarian intervention in Syria PART 2 - Case Study Example Article 1 and 2 of the Charter of the United Nations outlines the importance of recognizing the sovereignty of nations and their self-determinacy (Repertoire of the practice of the security council 1). The charter prohibits member states from forcefully intervening in the internal affairs of other states unless they either successfully seek the approval of the UN Security Council or react to protect their borders from external forces. This has played a major role in the humanitarian intervention, or lack of, in Syria. It has offered an obstacle for any nation willing to intervene in order to end the current crisis present in Syria. This restriction also covers the establishment of no fly zones and providing weapons to the rebel forces in Syria (United Nations 1). It is believed that powerful nations with permanent seats in the Security Council have used this provision to scuttle any attempt of intervention in Syria with Russia and China being the key accused. When the allegations of the use of chemical weapons by the government of Syrian on civilians and rebels in the region of Ghouta on 19 March 2013 surfaced, the United Nations embarked on a fact finding mission and presented a damning report that highlighted the use of sarin on civilians (United Nations 1). Consequently, the UN Security Council during its sittings showed a rare unity and passed Resolution 2118 in an attempt to ensure that the use of chemical weapons on civilians is not repeated. The resolutions demanded the destruction of the chemical weapons and prohibited the manufacture, accumulation and transfer of chemical weapons by Syria. Failure to adhere to the conditions set, the Security Council may impose penalties on Syria as per Chapter VII of the UN Charter (Repertoire of the practice of the Security Council 1). The United Nations, together with the League of Arab States, has played a key role in the search of a peaceful political solution in Syria.
Monday, February 3, 2020
Textbook Analysis - Essay Example The first page contains questions and quotations that give the reader an insight of the content of that unit. The pages begin with quotes, collages, questions, and unit introduction. This creates an idea of the flow of the content in that unit and the reader is able to prepare accordingly. Every collage contains images that correspond to the topic of the unit. They display values such as childcare and education, interaction of people in the society, and items encountered in the world such as computers. These images relate to the topic of the unit. Stereotyping refers to generalizations based on characteristics of all members of a group, based on wrong images about individuals in the group (Schneider, 6). The collage on unit six has two women holding young children. This creates the impression that women have the sole responsibility of caring for the young ones while men participate in activities such as education (Unit 6). One image shows a woman serving as a magistrate, which implies only few women rise to the level of prominent people in the society compared to men. The collage also contains the image of a black woman holding a child with an Asian ancestry. This illustrates the closeness of members of the minority groups as compared to close ties between minorities and majorities. This image is stereotypic since there are hostilities between members of minority groups such as Latinos and Africans. The collage on unit eight refers to technological advancements encountered in the modern world. The collage illustrates an ATM machine, computers, and roads that are usually associated with urban areas especially in developed countries. The traffic jam on the road indicates a high number of users that is usually associated with urban areas (Unit 8). These images create the perception that transport networks in urban areas are usually busy. The computers and ATM machines indicate ease of communication and service delivery that is experienced in the
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Gender and leadership style analysis 1. Introduction Leader is the central part of a company. No matter what kind of organization it is, the activity of leading is very important. Leader style is also called manager style, which is concerned with maintaining motivation, balancing interests and implementing tactical plans. An effective leader is someone who motivates a person or a group to accomplish more than they would have otherwise accomplished without that leaders involvement (Gedney R., 1999). As a good leader, he or she should be visionary, innovative, and has strategic and logical thinking. Good leadership style can help a company to build and sustain a high performance structure. When a baby is born, the first question people always ask is is it a boy or a girl? The babys gender determines what kind of characteristics he or she would have to some extent. If the baby is a boy, he is more likely to be competitive, strong and tough in the future. If the baby is a girl, she seems to be more careful, emotional, and patient when she grows up. So according to different characteristics male and female maintain, their leadership styles have many differences. 2. Different Genders Leadership Styles Research presented by Dr. Pat Heim in her video, The Invisible Rules: Men, Women and Teams, indicates that each gender is a culture in itself, raised with invisible rules of conduct instinctively known to all adult members of that gender (Norton D., 1998). Male leader leans towards the traditional command-and-control style. They are more likely to employ a transactional leadership. The transactional leadership style developed by Bass is based on the hypothesis that followers are motivated through a system of rewards and punishment (Transactional leadership, 2007). Leaders using this style view job performance as a series of transactions and they offer rewards for services rendered or punishment for inadequate performance. This means if the followers do something good for the organization, they will be rewarded. On the contrary, if they do something wrong, they will be punished. Followers are putting the wishes of leaders in effect.Ã In fact, this kind of style may begin to form the very early leader-follower relationship. Male leaders give the ideas to their followers that they can get better raises by following orders. As for female leaders, they also use the transactional leadership style. But the study found women were more likely to use the supporting component the leadership style have. On the other hand, male leaders not always give rewards when their employees perform well. But if the employees do something wrong, he will punish them without doubts. Female leaders are tended to use this kind of interactive leadership style. They not only encourage others participation but also attempted to energize followers by enhancing their sense of self-worth. They inspire and motivate employees while allowing them some initiative and giving them the power to make decisions on their own. Many women leaders believe that people perform best when they feel good about themselves and their work. The leaders are opening access to information to increase opportunities for continuous improvement. But similarities also exist among men and women managers. In order to lead employees, no matter what gender you are, you should follow many similar principles that useful in management. An extensive review of research suggests that similarities in leadership styles tend to outweigh the differences. Because of career self-selection and organization selection, people who choose careers in law enforcement or real estate have a lot in common. So do individuals who choose managerial or supervisory roles (David C., 2006). In retrospect, men are more likely to use the transactional leadership style for rewarding and punishing employees. Men are strong and decisive. Women build bridges of empathy. Men get things done. Women care more about the process(Different leadership styles, 2007). As women always use the transformational leadership style, they are better at negotiating than men. There are many communication strengths for female leaders: they enhance team work, win the trust of the people they work with, and encourage innovation. Male leaders also have many advantages: they are decisive when they face difficult situations, have clear mind to set different responsibilities, and remove unwanted elements without doubts. 3. Male Leaders vs. Female Leaders, Which Make Better Leaders During a long period of time, many people think men have the ability to manage people well and they are suitable to management. However, as more and more women are moving into management in recent years, some questions have arisen: Do women bring a special brand new style of leading into company? The traditional command-and-control style, compared with womens ways of leading, which one is more effective? Which leadership style is better? Which leadership style is better? In 2005, a year-long study identified a number of characteristics that distinguish women leaders from men when it comes to qualities of leadership. The study findings are summarized into four specific statements about womens leadership qualities: Women leaders are more persuasive than their male counterparts. When feeling the sting of rejection, women leaders learn from adversity and carry on with an Ill show you attitude. (Women Leaders study, 2005). Esther Wachs, the author of the book Why the Best Man for the Job is a Woman: The Unique Female Qualities of Leadership, makes research on the careers of fourteen top female executives among them the President and CEO of eBay to find out what makes them so successful. She found women has a willingness to reinvent the rules; an ability to sell their visions; the determination to turn challenges into opportunities; and a focus on high touch in a high tech business world (Lowen L.). Women in both staff and line positions were more likely to be leader-style executives than their male colleagues. During 1990s, there were only small part of women filled in managerial positions and most of them stayed in house looking after babies and doing housework. But just after several years, more and more women become white-collars and get high-leveled jobs. Organizations realize women have better performance than expected. In 2005, the number of women ascent into top management positions in large companies has increased nearly 60 percent over the last decade. In both the UK and Ireland, women represent more than 45 percent of the workforce (Gurdal I., 2005). From the data we can see, the speed which women moved into top positions is very fast. Nowadays, it is common to see female leaders in organization, although they are still the minority. Since technology develops rapidly, what the company concerned most in the future is for people. Interactive management, creative problem handling method, and effective communication skills are more valuable for an organization than other aspects. All these characteristics as important for future development and success are the qualities female leaders have. So to some extents, it seems that female leadership style is more and more suitable for companies. Women have the ability to create brand new corporation culture, which is different from male leaders produced. The structures that women establish seem to be flexible and these structures can help to create more interactive environment for a company. Since women also tend to discuss problems more openly and utilize group-think to seek solutions, such solutions are often more acceptable to teams (GutiÃ ©rrez M., 2008). According to what mentioned above, female leaders have many advantages outweigh than male leaders. But this does not mean male leaders are not good. There is still much superiority which male leaders have. Many studies show there are not lots of differences between the qualities of men and women leadership styles. Each genders leadership styles have their good points. Since male leaders are more masculine, they are good at solving problems, delegating, and influencing superiors. Female leaders are more feminine, they are more likely to be supporting and rewarding others, building team and consulting. Interestingly, some male leaders are better at networking, which generally is seen as a feminine behavior. Some female leaders are better than males at solving problems, an ability regarded as male leadership style. 4. The Trend of Leadership Style 4.1 Feminine leadership style is growing The general perception of business management before was a structure dominated by males whose leadership style was hierarchical, tough, action-oriented, and even autocratic. In most peoples mind, the ideal leader should be regarded as an independent, tough, individualistic hero. But today a new generation of women is bringing to business a different style often described as more consensus-building, more likely to encourage participation by others, more open and inclusive, and even more caring than that of many males. Now a new wave revolution created by women is coming. Many females begin explore their own way to top management positions. The way is not sitting down under old rules and habits that have proved effective and suitable for males, it derives from womens own experience and their unique understanding of the world.T he World YWCA Secretary General Kanyoro says attitudes toward leadership changing mentioned this: These newly admired leadership qualities of shared leadership; nurturance and doing good for others are today not only sought after but also indeed needed to make a difference in the world.A feminine way of leading includes helping the world to understand and be principled about values that really matter (Kanyoro M., 2006). In modern society, domination is no longer a popular leadership style. Todays work force is better-educated. Nowadays, more and more young professional workers are joining into the organizations. They demand to participate and contribute. In some cases, they have knowledge or talents their bosses dont have. Normally, these kinds of workers are likely to respond more to interactive leaders. They hope their leaders can be flexible, interactive, trust and encouraging rather than rigid, right-wing, serious, and restraining. Todays company requires leaders who not only are risk takers, but also are capable of hearing the ideas of others and really give them the power to use some of the ideas in changing business making them successful. Listening, encouraging and sharing information with people are the keys to success for best leaders. Just like the President of the nearly $500-million-a-year magazine group of Meredith Corp. said: Companies that try to manage in the old top-down, hierarchical, drill-sergeant way is just doomed (Nelton S., 1991). Many experts agree that women are more likely to have the ability to deal with the complicated problems existed in the company. They are more active in building networks, listening, resolving conflict, and getting people to work together. In addition, women can help companies be more competitive because they see business opportunities as a result of their own experience. Many female leaders have the confidence that they can help company grow very well in an international market. Although men still run the world, more and more people realize that it might be in better shape if women were more often in charge. Female leadership characters can help companies solve three major problemsthe need for better customer service, the demand for higher quality, and the need for leadership itself (Nelton S., 1991). Gradually, many male leaders start to use the so-called feminine tools of leadership without embarrassment. Being more male than male is no longer effective for women leaders on controlling a company. Women leaders have more opportunities to use the styles that are more natural to them as individuals, whether soft or tough. As never before, the world is seeking capable women as being the female leader. Its happening most quickly on the entrepreneurial side, as well as on the corporate side. A large growing pool of women will have the chance to show their executive talent. According to the research on Google, in United States, more than 4 million of women have already started at the top by launching their own companies. In order to nurture the development of women leaders, many companies encourage mentoring for women. They create situations that facilitate informal, on-the-job advice for women. Some companies also add women to board of directors. 4.2 Different leaderships blend together Although there are many advantages by using feminine leadership style, smart companies are making room for a diversity of styles, encouraging the development of women leaders along with the men. Male leaders are better at giving orders, while female leaders like to build the bridge between employees and her. They enhance team work more than male leaders and they more focus on the detailed things during the process. On the contrary, male leaders always lead in a macro point of view. Men and women can learn strengths from each other. Many women are combining the best of the traditional styles, such as focus on performance, into their leadership style, while men are adopting the so-called soft management approaches that women use effectively. For the fortunate businesses, these different styles should be complementary rather than confrontational. If two men or two women work together, it may not be more effective than men and women work together. At the top of the company, if different genders work together, they can produce harmony and comfortable environment and develop the companys potential to higher point. For an organization, in order to fully realize its potential, it is vital to meld different leadership styles together. No matter what kind of way the leader uses, the critical thing for the leader is to know the strong and weakness the style they use most frequently. To be effective in the workplace, the leader must also realize that switching between different styles can make his or her company have better performance. Dilemma Faced by Female Leaders in Todays Society: Stereotyping Leadership When we talk about the two types of leadership -one is predominantly masculine and the other is predominantly feminine, we would think about two different kinds of figures: men in the military and on the playing field to train soldiers, and women in the home to manage the house and nurture husbands and children. Since many women have been married and have children, most of them spend higher average hours of housework than men per week. The competitive pressure is growing higher and higher in todays society, women have to strive to balance their professional careers and family roles. Some people think female are not suitable for being leaders because women always consider their family a lot and can not spend all efforts on work. Womens inability of being leaders is not because they lack adequate leadership characteristics; it is because they do not have time and energy. Widely shared gender stereotypes are in effect the genetic code of the gender system, since they constitute the cult ural rules or schemas by which people perceive and enact gender difference and inequality (Carli L., 2001). Male and female management styles are distinct. In many cases, managerial stereotypes fit with gender stereotypes. People stereotype women as being better at encouraging, supporting and taking care; while men are stereotyped as being more direct, kinglike and taking charge. Many people think if the leader is a female, she is more likely to discuss with their employees when making a decision. To the contrary, if the leader is a male, he would decide by himself and influence superiors to follow him. People always consider man can better achieve a solution than women. Today, the number of men in top management positions is still much higher than women. Only a quite small part of women can enter top management field, let alone being CEOs. No matter what leadership style female executives choose, they are more likely to be perceived negatively than men. Female business leaders act consistent with gender stereotypes are considered too soft. But if they go against gender stereotypes, they are considered too tough. To explain these, when a female leader exhibit traditionally valued leadership behaviors such as assertiveness, she tends to be seen as competent but not personable or likable. If she adopts a more stereotypically feminine style, people like it but not see it as having valued leadership skills. So there is a double-bind dilemma for women in leadership: Damned If You Do, Doomed If You Dont (Study, 2007). So todays female leaders are really at a deadlock. Even though they tried very hard to become leaders, they still have limited positional power. Many people do not agree women become leaders because they regard all of women as a whole, and all of them have the same characteristics in other words, womens character flaw. In those peoples mind, since most women are sentimental, they should be tender and shilly-shally; since they are approachable, they do not have the determination to make punishment or criticize; since they are likely to support and encourage others, they do not have the power to influence superiors, etc. Stereotyping is strong and horrible, it gives women more and more pressure when they pursuit higher positions. Although many women have diversity trainings before they enter into executive positions, they still feel powerless to eliminate the stereotypes. The effect of gender stereotyping can be devastating, it block the way they pursuit their career, whittle down their confidence, bury their talents and potential and increase the huge gap in business leadership. One day women will be fully accepted in senior positions, but before this day comes true, women still have much further to go. Many companies have already realized the bad environment and unequal opportunities for women. In order to help women achieve their advancement and argue for their rights, some organizations have already taken active measure to avoid and resist gender stereotyping. Women leaders performance should be shown and supported, especially when they are in the fields dominated by male. Company should also create a gender-sensitive workplace, to give women the same opportunities to take part in the work discussion. Another way is to give managers, executives, and even employees the education about stereotyping. This can give them the idea that it is important to improve gender quality and let women have more confidence to strive for their rights. Furthermore, objective standards must be used when evaluating peoples achievements. It is sure that with equitable and supportive business environment, the organization will have better-educated workforce, enjoy better business performance and become more compatible in the market. 6. Suggestions for Good Leadership Style Regardless of the size of the company, both men and women business leaders have a lot they can teach one another about leadership, as well as the members of their own sex. As they learn from one another, they can bring strengthened leadership abilities to their companies. Here are some suggestions for good leadership styles. 6.1 Listen Carefully For this point, women leaders tend to be better listeners than men. Listening is the key because leaders can learn from the people who work for them by listening. If followers know their leader is open, the leader even hears the downside directly. Listening to others is a kind of way to gather information. It enables leaders to keep making changes to improve the organization. However, listening doesnt always mean agreement. Listening to a person doesnt mean you should decide it in his or her way. Leaders should be good at filtering useful information. Some leaders meet with a different group of 15 or more non-managerial employees for round-table discussions every month. By talking with those employees, leaders can get to know people at levels they might never see. The purpose of the round-table discussion is communication, but a wise leader makes a point of listening more than talking. 6.2 Being Decisive Decisiveness is defined as being characterized by firmness and decision' (Being decisive, 2007). Being decisive doesnt mean having a closed mind or being bullheaded. A good leader should know when to stop building consensus and gathering information to make a decision. Decisiveness is an area that women could probably learn something from men. 6.3 Be Willing to Express Your Emotions In fact, there is always a wrong perception about management. People always think soft management means the leader is sensitive, caring and supportive, and hard management means the leader is tough and draw the lines. But actually, a lot of the tough guy is really cowardly and ineffective management. Managers who take the hard approach sometimes are hiding behind a shell, they are afraid to confront their own emotions and feelings. They scare to show it in public. Dont be afraid to show your feelings to your employees which are important for both male and female leaders. Because it is a way to show your faith and honest, and it is also an opportunity to build the bridge of trust among people. Many leaders find when they stop hiding their emotions, their reputation among employees is higher. Instead of considering being soft, they receive more respects from their employees. Cry doesnt mean you are wimp. Leaders who cry for their employees outstanding performance or regret for their own leading mistakes convey that they take employees performance and achievements seriously. 6.4 Doesnt Let Your Ego Get in the Way No matter you are a man or a woman, you have to learn that there is no place for ego in leadership. Only one person can not make a company successful. Running an organization its a team effort and a team attitude. If something is good, both leader and followers will all take credit. But if it is bad, they all take the blame. Leaders should not be too proud of them and focus on making profit for their own, since it will be found sooner or later and followers will not trust the leaders any more. Dont be egotistical does not mean you can not get to the top if you want to. But what the leader should make it clear is that the more people you try to take along with you, the faster youll get there and the longer youll stay there. 6.5 Be Yourself Dont try to force yourself into a certain style thats not natural to you, even if you think its expected of you. Leaders should aware that different people have different expectations, you can not satisfy everyone. Do not lose yourself. Female leaders are strong professionals, but they can still wear dresses instead of masculine-looking suits. They can also keep a jar of candy in the office, which is regarded as a typically female touch. Believe it or not, such little things can produce an environment of communication and friendliness. You can learn to draw on other leaders styles, however, to enrich your choice of tools. Leader should build on his or her strengths in terms of the personality, and it basically comes down to what works best for him or her. 7. Does only sex determine the leadership style? Most of the male leaders can set legible responsibilities, but that does not mean women leaders can not. So all of these characteristics described for male and female actually do not have clear boundaries and are not the unique ones just aim at one gender. The leadership style is not just influenced by gender, the style also develop out of personalities and life experiences. Each leader has a predominant style, but the other aspects of leadership must also be present as tools to use. If men do not feel embarrassed to show some kinds of feminine ways of leading, they can also use them directly and effectively. In some cases, female leaders are also comfortable to show use some male leadership styles when necessary. In very difficult and dangerous situation, there may be just only one right decision. The leader should use it, no matter what gender the leader is. For many successful male and female leaders, their partners (have different gender) are linked by neither marriage nor romance. Men and women in senior management all work for long hours and are motivated by the achievement they made. Leadership style is also determined by the types of operations executives run. If the leader oversees design and production, he seems to be more low-key than the other one who is responsible for sales, marketing, and finance. The second leader needs to be more intense and aggressive so as to increase the performance of apartments which he or she charges. If leaders responsibilities require more structure, they should be more strict and rigid. On the contrary, if they need to deal with creative people, they should be more fluid, spontaneous, and flexible. From a get-somebodys-attention standpoint, it is beneficial for the leaders to be direct, no nonsense, and get on the table what they want. 8. Conclusion In retrospect, males tended to be more task-oriented; females tended to be more relationship-oriented. Women tend to employ a more democratic, participative style while men tend to take a more autocratic, directive approach. Self-selection and adaptation are factors common to female leadership, while delegation and controlling are factors common to male leadership. Female leaders are more likely to be supporting and rewarding others, building team and consulting. Male leaders are better at solving problems, delegating, and influencing superiors. Human flexibility combined with cultural experiences allows men and women the ability to do more or less what they choose versus being locked into stereotypical behaviors. For example, men are capable, although maybe not comfortable, working within organizations currently identified with womens styles. Also, women can and do adapt to military leadership styles when required. Although there are lots of differences between male and female leaders, they can still successfully work together, to communicate effectively, and contribute equally to the work place. Nowadays, more and more leaders become introspective but decisive, caring yet competent. Companies seem to understand giving the chances to a variety of leaders to grow and shine is good for business. All in all, whether a style is masculine or feminine, the best leadership style depends on the organization. A nontraditional leadership style can be effective in organizations that accept it. The most competitive organizations will take leaders wherever they find them, no matter what sex they are. Thats not only the essence of capitalism, but also the law of survival of the fittest.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Acids are very corrosive substances that can break down materials easily. The higher acidity obtained by a substance, the faster it is able to decompose another material. In order to determine the acidity of certain substances, a pH scale is used. On this scale, numbers one to fourteen are placed. Fourteen would represent an increased amount of alkalinity rather than acidity. Seven is a neutral zone, and one would be an increased amount of acidity rather than alkalinity (USGS, 2016). Figure 1 shows how the scale works and a select few substances that obtain different pH values. These values range from 14 to 1. The greater acidity of a substance, the more pernicious it is. The lower acidity of a substance, the less corrosive it becomes. In order to determine the perniciousness of a material, a pH scale is used. Testing strips help determine this. A pH testing strip is a piece of paper that is used to measure the molar concentration of hydrogen ions to determine the acidity or basicity of a substance (GSU, 2000). The use of pH testing strips supply plentiful information when trying to find the pH of a substance.Figure 1: Standard pH Scale (BIOL 1406)Soft DrinksStudies have provided information that many of commercially sold soft drinks in the United States are extremely corrosive with a pH of 4.0 or lower. The average dissolution of tooth structure begins at 4.0 (Zhejiang University, 2009). Thus stated, these soft drinks have a detrimentally high erosive potential and are able to cause dissolution. The soft drink Pepsi has a pH of 2.37. Orange Crush maintains a pH of 2.87. Dr. Pepper reveals a pH of 2.88. Country Time Lemonade shows a pH of 2.57, and Coca Cola contains a pH of 2.39 (Reddy, et. Al., 2015). Pepsi has the lowest pH of these select soft drinks, so it has the highest acidic level, whereas Dr. Pepper has the highest pH. Concluding this, Pepsi is the most corrosive substance, and Dr. Pepper is the least corrosive. Since the dissolution of calcium begins at 4.0, every soft drink used in this poll is of great detrimental damage. The erosive potential of each drink has a great effect on structures such as enamel. The fastest dissolution would begin with Pepsi, Coca Cola next, then Country Time lemonade. After lemonade, Orange Crush, and finally Dr.Pepper.Calcium And DissolutionCalcium is a mineral that supplies the main structure and hardness for bones and teeth. (Goldblatt, et. Al, 2016). It is also the backbone of eggshells, for the protective coating around the egg is made of calcium carbonate. The calcium differences between tooth enamel and eggshells are very closely related. They are not the same, but in comparison, their properties correspond very well. Enamel consist of minerals that help protect the tooth. This is the same for eggshells. Eggshells are a protective coating for the egg. Yet, while tooth enamel contains calcium phosphate, eggshells contain calcium carbonate (University of Illinois, 2016). Eggs appear to be the best direct comparison to find closely related results. If a soft drink can decompose an eggshell in a certain amount of time, it should likewise be the same for enamel, just a bit more complicated because of the excess mineral makeup that makes teeth a stronger substance. The calcium carbonate and the soda are the true reactions. It's not so much the egg as a whole, or the soda as a whole, it is how they act amongst each other when combined. The acidic drink is eligible to break down calcium levels because of the reaction between the substances. Enamel begins to increasingly dissolute inversely to the increase of pH. As the pH lessens, the more dissolution is caused ( Larsen, 1999). Soda contains many different levels of sugary and acidic values that cause a much faster dissolution, and cause erosion. Using a demonstration of teeth submerged in an acidic liquid for a week is close to a life time span of drinking soda throughout several years. This is understandable because the structure is submerged inside the liquid at all times, not just frequent periods (Swains, 2007). How Dissolution in Enamel Works Because of the high phosphoric acid content in carbonated drinks, they are seemingly low on the pH Scale. Low pH levels are extremely acidic and remineralize particles in tooth enamel. Dissolution causes dental problems over time. Some of these painful diseases are caused by soft drinks. Some common issues seen amongst people that have a diet containing soda everyday are more susceptible to caries, osteoporosis, attrition, and abstraction(American Dental Association, 2000). The phosphoric acid and sugar compounds create a massive build up against bone structure. Although enamel is strong and sturdy, dissolution begins at surroundings of a 4.0 pH, so it doesn't hold up forever. Carbonated drinks are said to be just as bad as non diluted vinegar, but because of all of the sugars and artificial flavoring, the drinks do not seem as bad. In fact, some carbonated drinks are of a lower pH than vinegar on the pH scale( Austin Community College). The initial purpose of this experiment was to enhance the knowledge of what drinks can decompose calcium the fastest due to specific levels of acidity.Discussion True dissolution did not seem to begin until after the first week. In comparison to a life span, one week is a reasonable amount of time before decay because 1 week is a regular sitting of soda over a 3 year time span. It is known that dissolution does not begin right away, more so it is the long term effects after something has been done repeatedly. (Swains, 2007) The eggshells had absorbed the colors of the drinks. This was very intricate because the soft drink seemed to appear disoluted, whereas the egg had pertained the saturation of color. In comparison, teeth absorb the color of drinks and stain after a while. Of course this is not shown right away, but as stated previously, the time frame in which the eggs soak is an approximation of almost thirteen years of drinking that drink regularly. This is a valid point as to why the egg had such a large discoloration; it was because it absorbed the color it was surrounded by (W3C, 2006). The acidic drinks used had a detrimental change on the eggshells. The mass of the eggs decreased sufficiently and distinctively. When touching the shell, it was fragile, and the drinks were so corrosive that the shell itself was stripping into thin sediment. Pieces of the shell were flaking off. Soft drinks have such a high phosphoric acid content which leads to extreme reductions of calcium. Reductions of calcium lead to weak and fragile structures. Pepsi Eggs that had been submerged in Pepsi were sticky and had a brown overtone to them. These eggs had gone through the most dissolution throughout the 4 week timespan. This makes sense when understanding that the most acidic substance used was Pepsi. Pepsi has a very low pH balance which causes such an extreme amount of dissolution. The more acidic a substance is, the more corrosive and efficient it is when eroding. With a pH of 2.37, it is easy to tell that the substance has a high acidic ranking which is a detrimate factor in erosion. The net total dissolution caused by the soft drink Pepsi was .847g. Pepsi is a Cola product so the assumption was that it would have taken a toll like Coca Cola did, but it turns out it was a lot harsher on the eggs than Coca Cola was. Frankly, It was approximately double the damage. The American Dental Association provides information on Cola products and the way they affect bone structure. Cola products are said to be a significant cause of damage to the bones which explains why the eggshell had dissoluted so quickly in Pepsi. But why not the same for Coca Cola too? This is where the phosphoric acid in Pepsi was higher than in Coca Cola. Pepsi had a lower pH, so it was more corrosive afterall ( American Dental Association, 2000). Orange Crush Eggs that were submerged in Orange Crush had many interesting effects to them. The most interesting was that the egg shell had gained the saturation of the drink whereas the drink diluted to almost a complete clear color. Although this occured, it did not have a great amount of dissolution as expected. Orange juice is very acidic, but because there was a use of mainly carbonated sodas, Orange Crush seemed like the next best comparison. There was not as much damage as expected after all with only .359g disoluted total. It is still a great amount of dissolution, but not as much as the Cola products and Country Time Lemonade. Orange Crush obtained the second lowest pH of all the substances( American Dental Association, 2000). Although the phosphoric acid was lower than most of the solutions, Dr. Pepper still had the lowest pH and phosphoric acid level of all. Nonetheless, Orange Crush still contains a low pH, phosphoric acid, and is eligible to be abrasive to structure. The acids present take on considerable influences of demineralizing and causing attrition in structures( Johansson, et Al. 2012). Dr. Pepper Eggs that were submerged in Dr. Pepper were sticky and obtained a similar brown color like the eggs submerged in Pepsi. The solution had made a sort of gooey protection around the egg much like Pepsi had. By the fourth week each egg was completely brown and the shell was softened making it substantially weaker than the first week. Although the shell was weak. Eggs submerged in Dr. Pepper had the least dissolution amongst every soft drink. Considering the pH of Dr. Pepper is the highest, at just 2.88,and it obtains the least acidic makeup; this is of validation. Although, Dr. Pepper contains a higher sugar concentration than most drinks. This partakes a great roll in the occurrence of dissolution too. Sugary drinks affect dissolution as much as acid concentration, so there was still a great potential of attrition to occur over the four week time period(Ophardt, 2003). When calculating the average dissolution amongst all of the soft drinks, Dr.Pepper did appear to have the lowest in dissolution. The net total was .243g. This is a smaller number compared to the rest of the soft drinks, yet nonetheless it is still an amount of dissolution. Concluding this, it is still a corrosive substance also. These acid and sugar contents are detrimental to structure(Thompson, 2016).Country Time Lemonade Eggs that were submerged in Country Time Lemonade contained a very gritty texture and the shell was flaking off into small pieces that were brittle and thin. The Country Time Lemonade had also bleached the eggshell. By the fourth week, the eggshells had been brightly shining as a pure white, whereas when the eggs first began they were dull and had very light grey spots in select places. Some pieces of the shells were gone and the inside was preserved like a coating of yolk that was rubbery. Although brittle and frail, the most dissolution was not caused by Country Time Lemonade. The net total dissolution had actually fallen directly in the middle of all soft drinks. The total abrasion of the eggs submerged in Country Time Lemonade amounted .369g. Although a smaller amount than Coca Cola and Pepsi, there was still a substantial amount of dissolution amongst these eggs over all( American Dental Association, 2000). One of the biggest factors that Country Time Lemonade is eligible to sustain such a great dissolution is because of the acid in lemons/ lemon juice and the amount of sugar added to this solution. As well as the low pH balance of 2.57. A considerable amount of dissolution occurs under these conditions(Ophardt, 2003). Coca ColaEggs submerged in Coca Cola had the second highest erosive potential amongst this set of carbonated drinks. Much like the ending results of Dr. Pepper and Pepsi, Coca Cola also had the same sticky coating around its shell and the discoloration of the egg was brown as well. The solution was gooey just as Dr. Pepper and had a very soft texture to it. The shell was mushy and turned very fragile over each week. By the fourth week, the eggs submerged in Coca Cola were just completely mushy and didn't have stability to them at all, whatsoever. Cola products are severely detrimental to structures. They cause a critical dissolution amongst structures, in this case eggs. Coca Cola is said to be significant in causing bone damage. Coca Cola and Pepsi are both products of Cola, but Coca Cola had a lessened effect on the eggs. The phosphoric acid and sugar contents contained in the soft drink Coca Cola were less than in the solution, Pepsi. Through the comparison of Cola products, it was engrossing to see which would substance had the greatest effect. Originally, it was thought that Coca Cola would cause the most dissolution because it is such a strong acidic drink and had a high sugar content. Needless to say, this wasn't the case, and Pepsi's acidic content was higher; thus leading it to have a lower pH. Although Coca Cola did not have a significant amount of dissolution compared to Pepsi, it still ranked number two out of five. With a dissolution of .447g over the 24 day span, Coca Cola provided the second most decrease( American Dental Association). With a pH balance of and a high sugar content, Coca Cola was able to gain second, yet Pepsi still has Coca Cola beat.In conclusion, the carbonated drinks presented in this essay have provided a true presentation of how the dissolution of eggshells resemble the abfraction and attrition of tooth enamel( Fraunhofer, 2006).These drinks are hard on enamel. The effects stay for a lifetime, and can cause many problem areas. Carbonated drinks cause lesions, caries, and can even cause osteoporosis in actual bone structures by draining the calcium levels in your body. The effects of these soft drinks are not kind on the body. Consuming these acidic substances sets up a lifetime of problems that make you much more susceptible to enamel decay. It is okay to drink these drinks, but it is a must to do it in a moderate way. These substances contain such high acidic levels that cause demineralization in enamel. The phosphorus content of soft drinks can even limit the calcium absorption which can lead to bone loss due to diseases such as osteoporosis(American Dental Association). Some carbonated drinks affect erosion a lot less than others, but this does not add limitations; for these carbonated drinks are still detrimental to one's health. Between soft drinks, Pepsi is definitely the most detrimental of all, and Dr. Pepper is the least detrimental. If carbonated soft drinks are a want, or need, this poll provides a considerate amount of information as to why Dr. Pepper would be the best option. It is still unhealthy and can cause erosion, but of the drinks, it seems to be the best option. Eggs provided a great substitute for teeth in this project. The two structures have so many common features that made it a lot easier to make a comparison. The limitations of calcium absorption played a huge part in creating this project(Texas University, 2016). The final data was fascinating to compare. The results were not the same as the hypothesis, but that made the final results the most riveting of all.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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